It takes years to advance a consequential new battery from concept to commercialization. For proof, look no further than this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Stanley Whittingham developed the first lithium-ion battery in 1976, John Goodenough improved cathode performance in 1980, and Akira Yoshino made it practical for commercialization in 1991—a total of fifteen years from start to finish. The lithium-ion battery has powered the mobile revolution since its introduction.